Presentation on sustainable development for Rio+20 by Urantulkhuur Mandkhaitsetsen of Centre for Human Resource Development, Mongolia
Excerpt: The mining sector is rapidly growing in Mongolia since the mid 1990s when the Government adopted “Gold” program. In order to support the implementation of such a program it also adopted the Minerals Law in 1997. Both of them, the program and the laws, aimed to attract and support investments to mining sector in order to support economic growth of the country. Mining could became now the main source of the economy of the country.
As of 2011, 70% of the annual export income was from mining and the mining sector and also 30 % of the annual GDP was from mining.
However, we faced rapid economic growth, and at the same time we faced much more environmental destruction and social and governance instability due to a one-sided state policy promoting the mining sector.
In 2005, 46% of the territory was covered by around 6,000 mining licenses either exploration and exploitation.
However, due to strong resistance against mining especially by local communities affected, and environmental and social problems occurred , the government has recently realized its fault and is taking some actions to bring environmental accountability in mining sector. But nothing on social justice.
As well, the Government is promoting large scale mining instead of small and middle scale. Most of the larger mining projects are invested by multinational corporations, such as Rio Tinto and Ivanhoe Mines.
Impact on women:
Female artisanal miners: 45% out of 100 000
-Mercury and cyanide exposure
-Lack of safe drinking water
-Migration: loss of access to social services
-Lack of participation in consultations