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| Chapter 4
the Filipino Migrant Movement Developed
There are some wrong notions among certain NGO's and Church people
that migrant workers are voiceless. This has come to a point that
it is only most recently that regional and international conferences
include the migrant workers themselves.
Voices from the Filipino migrant workers though have been heard
since the early 1980's. This started as spontaneous actions against
employers such as in Saudi Arabia. These included work slowdowns
and stoppages to demand better living conditions and payment of
wages in the work sites. However, most of these forms of protests
led to the termination of the jobs of the perceived leaders and
their inability to return back to the Kingdom as a result of being
blacklisted by their employers and being put on the watch list by
These kind of actions would be replicated in the 1990's in places
such as Taiwan and Macau. In 1995, scores of Filipinos staged a
strike in a Formosa Plastics Corp. factory in Taoyuan only to be
forcibly repatriated back to the Philippines in their slippers and
with their clothes on as their only belongings. Two years later,
more than a hundred Filipino employees of Guardforce staged a successful
strike that caused the termination of 10 of their leaders for various
disciplinary or technical offenses fabricated by their employer.
1. Brief History on the Development of Filipino Migrants Movement
Overseas Filipinos have a long history of struggle since the Spanish
colonial times. Their struggle for their rights as a people is in
fact a struggle for freedom from colonial bondage and exploitation.
Those who were forced to work as "corvee labor" in the galleon trade
fought for their freedom by "jumping ship" and by settling in New
There are also Filipino migrants who were brought to Australia who
either joined or supported the Katipunan's fight against colonial
Spain. The printing press used by the Katipuneros (Filipino revolutionaries)
were donated by migrant Filipinos in Australia.
During the American occupation of the Philippines in the 1900s,
thousands of Filipinos who were practically uprooted from their
Motherland in order to serve as cheap labor for the fast-growing
agricultural and industrial production needs of America chose to
struggle against capitalist exploitation and oppression. Massive
strikes were then led by Pedro Calosa in the 1920s. There were documentations
on the lives of Filipino migrant workers such as Carlos Bulosan,
a Filipino migrant martyr, who actively worked in organizing migrant
workers in the US under the Congress of Industrial Organizations
(CIO) in the 1930s.
After WW II, about 6,000 Filipino migrant workers in the United
States joined the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU)
against exploitative conditions in Waipahu, Hawaii. In 1965, a militant
boycott of migrant Filipinos working in grape farms and plantations
led by Philip Vera Cruz inspired the Mexican plantation workers
to join in the formation of the United Farm Workers Union (UFWU).
In the latter years of the '60s, the movement of overseas Filipinos
took a new direction. Many Filipino activists went to the United
States in order to organize and mobilize Filipinos who were residing
and working there for the movement for social change in the Philippines.
A broad anti-dictatorship movement against Marcos was developed.
A nationalist organization of Filipinos in the United States was
formed and this expanded in different cities. When then President
Marcos declared martial law in the Philippines, this nationalist
movement held protest actions in the United States. Even the arch
enemies of Marcos flew to the US and joined the anti-fascist actions
In the 1970s, nationalist Filipinos in Europe and Asia-Pacific started
to organize and mobilize support for the movement for social change
in the Philippines. The strategy, however, stressed on building
"solidarity formations" among the peoples of host countries because
of intensifying repression in the Philippines. Organizing and mobilizing
the migrant Filipinos who were growing in numbers then was not given
It was only in the late '70s and early '80s that the phenomenon
of massive migration of Filipinos was given attention. Support institutions
were established in order to defend the rights and promote the well-being
of Filipino migrant workers. Though organizing work among the ranks
of the migrant workers was considered as a main task during this
period, its direction and orientation was not very clear. One task
was clear though -- to respond to the immediate labor and related
problems of migrant workers onsite. Hence, these support institutions
focused on giving support services and welfare needs such as counseling,
labor assistance, shelter, and pastoral care -- services which were
supposed to be shouldered by the same government which massively
deployed the migrant workers in the first place.
strategy however proved to be lacking. While it was recognized that
the immediate needs of migrant workers have to be addressed, the
relationship of the immediate needs and problems to the root causes
of massive labor migration in the Philippines remained nebulous.
rights and welfare organizations, self-help groups and service institutions
were formed in the early 1980s, and several activists and advocates
were organized and trained, the lack of a clear orientation in relating
the promotion of migrants' rights and welfare, and working for fundamental
changes that would address the root problems of migration hampered
the work. It even created the idea that organizing migrant workers
was futile because their objective in working abroad was to uplift
their economic and financial condition. This consciousness developed
among many of the migrant worker activists and advocates. Instead
of objectively rooting out the causes of massive migration of Filipinos,
they put the subjective wish of migrant Filipinos as the principal
reason for leaving the country.
In 1984, President Marcos signed into law Executive Order 857 (Forced
Remittance Law), which required migrant workers to remit 70% (for
landbased migrant workers) and 100% (for sea-based migrant workers)
of their earnings through legal banking channels. EO 857 imposed
penalties for those who did not do so.
This issue created a wide protest among the ranks of the migrant
workers in the Middle East, Hongkong, Japan and Europe. A coordinated
campaign was launched between migrant-related groups inside the
Philippines and outside. This was the beginning of coordination
of efforts inside and outside the Philippines.
The campaign projected the relationship of the general problems
besetting migrant workers and the basic problems of Philippine society.
It even exposed Marcos' kowtowing to the dictates of the IMF-WB.
The campaign generated huge support from hundreds of thousands of
migrant workers and their families.
Different forms of actions were taken -- signature campaign, petition,
dialogues, public fora, discussion groups, telephone brigades, vigil,
"trambayan" (migrant workers rode public trams, mass distributed
leaflets, etc.). The resounding resistance of migrant workers defeated
the imposition of EO 857. As a consequence, Marcos held it back.
When Cory Aquino ascended into power in 1986, she introduced a new
customs tax law in 1987 -- Executive Order 206 -- for returning
migrant workers. EO 206 imposed a 100% duty to all appliances brought
into the country which exceed the ceiling of P5000. Prior to this
decree, migrant workers could bring in appliances of any kind tax-free.
Again, the said order drew strong protests from migrant Filipinos
in the Middle East, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Canada. They demanded
the repeal of EO 206 and threatened to boycott remittance of dollars
if the Aquino government insisted on implementing the executive
order. The campaign also involved coordinated actions with groups
in the Philippines. It immediately resulted in amendments to EO
206 - the ceiling was raised to P10,000, and the tax was decreased
Though there were some gains in the campaign, organizations of migrant
workers continued to campaign for its repeal. In many instances
since then, migrant workers were able to assert to Customs officials
at the airport of their right to bring in appliances and other items
(non-commercial quantity) without paying any new tax.
From 1988 to 1991, Filipino migrant workers' organizations in Hongkong,
Japan, Saudi Arabia, Europe, and Australia launched a campaign for
the ratification of the ILO Conventions and Recommendations concerning
Migrant Workers and their Families. They also called for the issuance
of a bilateral labor agreement between the Philippine government
and the government of the host country. The campaign aimed to raise
the consciousness and mobilize the migrant workers and the local
people to promote and protect the rights and well-being of migrants.
It likewise advocated for the Philippine government and the host
countries to adhere to and implement international standards for
migrant workers which have thus far been established.
The Formation of a Global Alliance of Filipino Migrant Organizations
In January 1992, a conference was sponsored by the Asia Pacific
Mission for Migrant Filipinos (APMMF). Participated by leaders of
migrant organizations and support institutions in Asia-Pacific,
Saudi Arabia and in the Philippines, the conference resulted in
the formation of the Committee for the Unity of Overseas Filipinos
(CUOF), which aimed to initiate the formation of an alliance of
migrant organizations in the Asia Pacific and Middle East regions.
Two months later, it was renamed MIGRANTE-Asia Pacific and Middle
MIGRANTE-APME started to build its advocacy, education and organizing
work inside and outside the Philippines. Campaigns were launched
and coordinated concerning issues such as the Mandatory Insurance
and Repatriation Bond (MIRB), mysterious deaths of women migrants
(Maricris Sioson, et.al.), unjust termination of Filipino teachers
in Saudi Embassy School, and others.
In July 1992, former President Fidel Ramos implemented the MIRB
that exacted P1,200 to P2,500 (US$55 - US$120 at the exchange rate
of P22 to US$1) from the migrant workers for their insurance and
repatriation. MIGRANTE-APME launched an educational campaign as
well as protest actions against MIRB. It took four (4) long years
for Pres. Ramos to retract the implementation of the aforementioned
In December 1994, an international consultation was held and this
resulted in the transformation of MIGRANTE-APME into MIGRANTE International.
Representatives were assigned and tasked to prepare for the holding
of the Founding Congress of MIGRANTE International.
issue of the hanging of Flor Contemplacion erupted in early
March 1995, MIGRANTE International spearheaded a militant campaign
in the Philippines and coordinated it with Filipino patriotic
organizations and migrant advocates worldwide. The most important
gain in the campaign was that it put the migrant issue on the
national and international agenda. It even led the Ramos government
to conduct a fact-finding team (Gancayco Commission), which
also sponsored a bill now known as the Magna Carta for OCWs.
Founding Congress of MIGRANTE International as an alliance was launched
in December 1996. The alliance was composed of patriotic organizations
which actively works for the promotion of the rights and welfare
of migrants in particular and the Filipino people in general. It
aimed to raise the consciousness, organize and mobilize the ranks
of migrant Filipinos in order to defend and protect their rights
and well-being and direct the struggle of the migrants towards the
struggle of the Filipino people. The alliance strongly believed
and affirmed that the solution to the problem of massive Filipino
migration lies in the solution of the fundamental problems of Philippine
society. It also believed that the only alternatives for a better
Philippine society are genuine national industrialization and genuine
land reform. This way, the economy will generate decent jobs and
livelihood for the Filipino people, enough not to drive away or
force the people to migrate.
Soon after its founding Congress, MIGRANTE International immediately
launched a campaign against state exactions and human rights violations.
With regards to the campaign on state exactions, passport and travel
document fees in Korea were lowered by as much as 30% while authentication
fee in Hongkong was also lowered by about 40%.
2. Historical Development of Filipino Migrants Movement in Selected
The Mission for Filipino Migrant Workers (MFMW) was instrumental
in organizing migrant Filipinos in the territory. MFMW came into
being in 1981 due to the request of the Anglican Church in Hong
Kong to the National Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP)
to set up a mission for the growing number of migrants in Hong Kong.
After three years, the Asia Pacific Mission for Migrant Filipinos
(APMMF) was established. The two institution teamed-up in organizing
Filipino migrants in the territory and the counseling program of
the MFMW helped in the initial contact building and investigation
needed in organizing work.
Both institution encouraged the formation of self-help groups and
was instrumental in the formation of Association of Concerned Filipinos
(ACFIL) in 1984. It had also good relations with other Filipino
organizations already set up like the St. John's Fellowship and
Since sunday was the usual day-off schedule for most of the Filipinos,
the MFMW and APMMF staff usually maximized this day to integrate
with the migrants. Thus, organizational activities such as meetings,
consultation, education trainings, fora and public activities were
usually held during this day.
In providing the needed education training, both institution did
not only provide organizational management training in their education
plan but also information that equiped migrants for a critical analysis
of their situation as migrants and as Filipinos. These included
other issues that affects the lives of the majority of the Filipino
The issue of forced remittance (EO857) hastened the formation of
a broad formation against said executive order which later transformed
into United Filipinos in Hong Kong (UNIFIL-HK) in 1985. UNIFIL as
an alliance of Filipino migrant organizations started with 10 members
which later grew to 21. At present, UNIFIL has good working relationships
with three federations and one union. These are the Abra Tingguian-Ilocano
Society (ATIS), United Pangasinan Association, Mindanao Federation,
Sabangan Federation, Cordillera Alliance and Filipino Migrant Workers
The following are the present 21 member organizations of UNIFIL:
Migrant Workers Welfare Association (AMWWA)
2. Association of Concerned Filipinos (ACFIL)
3. Balili-alab Workers Organization (BAWO)
4. Binalonan, Pangasinan Migrant Workers Organization (BPMWO)
5. Dolores Civic association
6. Dumarao Hong Kong Association
7. Filipino Friends in HK
8. Filipino Mission - Methodist Church
9. Friends of Bethune House (FBH)
10. Justice and Peace - Evangelization Family
11. Maharlika Association
12. Methodist Filipino Fellowship
13. Pasuquin Ellite Migrant Association
14. Philippine Independent Church - Choir
15. Pinatud A Saleng Ti Umili (PSU)
16. San Quintin, Pangasinan Migrant Workers Organization (SPMWO)
17. San Vicente Migrant Workers Organization (SVMO)
18. Tayug, Pangasinan Migrant Workers Organization (TPMWO)
19. United Ybanag Association
20. Villasis, Pangasinan Migrant Workers Organization (VPMWO)
21. Women of Philippine Independent Church - (WOPIC) - Antique
earned the respect of the Filipino migrant community by achieving
success in its campaign against EO 857 and other issues close to
the hearts of the migrants. It was also one of the leading organizations
which protested against the introduction of the racist and discriminatory
policy of the Hong Kong Immigration Department called New Conditions
of Stay (NCS) which, up to now it has consistently opposed.
Another Philippine government policy called Memorandum Circular
No. 41 or MC 41 which required all overseas contract workers (OCW's)
to pass through recruitment agencies was later replaced by Department
Order No. 11. The new department order removed the mandatory requirement
for OCW's to pass through recruitment agencies. This development
was a result of a series of campaigns launched by UNIFIL-HK and
other migrant organizations and institutions.
It also participated in various national issues most notable of
which were the ouster of Presidents Marcos and Estrada. It was instrumental
in forming the Asian Migrant Coordinating Body (AMCB) in 1994 -
a coalition of different migrant organizations of different nationalities
(Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines) which thwarted
moves by different Hong Kong government bodies and some politicians
to sponsor anti-migrant policies.
These victories included a lower wage cut in 1999 (five percent
from the proposed 35%), the non-implementation of the the proposals
to cut the maternity protection and benefits for Foreign Domestic
Helpers (FDHs), the scrapping of the ban on driving duties and the
non-approval of a 20 percent levy on FDH's.
Another recent proposal for a wage cut was prevented by the series
of protest actions organized by the AMCB.
Contacts in this country among Filipino migrants started few months
after the establishment of APMMF in 1984. In 1985, the total number
of Filipino migrants working in Saudi Arabia reached 328,111. Most
of them were in construction work, hospitals, government agencies,
and other services-related work.
The primary concern during this period was how to address the very
difficult situation of migrant workers in Saudi Arabia, given its
very conservative socio-political system. The breakthrough in organizing
work in Saudi Arabia debunked the findings of some NGOs who had
earlier visited the country and then came out with the conclusion
that it was impossible to do organizing work there.
In 1985, APMMF facilitated the formation of volunteer groups of
Filipinos in Jeddah and Riyadh. Two migrant groups were formed and
these would operate secretly among the migrant workers there, because
its very strict monarchial rule of forbidding any form of social
organization aside from Islam.
Kapatiran sa Gitnang Silangan (KGS) in Riyadh, and the Filipino
Expatriates, Inc. (FILEX) in Jeddah were launched in 1986. The System
of Unity for Social Integration (SUSI) was also established in the
Eastern Province during this period. Their members were mostly migrants
working in hospitals, banks, transportation, engineering and construction
sites. KGS even had its own publication called Kabayan.
In 1989, KUMPARE (Kapulungan at Ugnayan ng mga Migranteng Pilipino
sa Arabong Rehiyon) was formed in Jeddah. KUMPARE operationalized
its organizing work through camp hopping, initiating discussion
groups, and forming core groups in specific areas. Its welfare assistance
extended to providing food, shelter and encouraging a sense of belonging
among stranded workers and other victims of labor issues. A Saudi-wide
migrant rights and welfare formation called KASAMA-KA was also established
in 1992 and it had six organizations under its wing.
With the aid of APMMF's initial contacts that acted as volunteer
organisers, KGS, SUSI, Kumpare and FILEX were set up. These organizations
existed for some years and took up the tasks of organizing and assisting
other Filipinos there. However, the reality of migrant work caught
up with the key leaders of these organizations who had to move away,
given that they were migrant workers themselves and they had to
go where their jobs took them. KGS and KUMPARE continued to exist
but FILEX and SUSI eventually disbanded because there were no organizers/leaders
to facilitate their development and continuity.
In 1992, two full-time organizers of APMMF were sent to Saudi Arabia
to do follow-up work and assist in MIGRANTE's organizing and education
work. These two organizers were former workers in Saudi Arabia and
were leaders/organizers before they decided to become full-time
organizers. Their work was to continue what they initiated before
and to further pursue the organizing work that they had once left
behind. Their presence also helped to fill the vacuum that was created
by some leaders who decided to return home for good.
The experience and lessons derived from the period of 1984 - 1991
gave impetus to migrant organizations and organizers to expand to
other areas in Saudi Arabia, and to build on the initial organizing
work that was first established in Riyadh, the Eastern Province,
Aside from contacting and developing closer ties with the existing
migrant organizations in the region, a new formation was established
during the early part of this period -- the Association of Dressmakers
in the Eastern Province which had a membership of 200 migrant workers.
Another organization named Lakas Manggagawa sa Jubail (Workers Strength
in Jubail) or LMJ with around 50 members was also established in
the Eastern Province at around the same time as the Association
Breakthroughs were also made in many areas, so that some highly-skilled
blue-collared Filipino workers and professionals were encouraged
to participate in and support migrant organizations whose members
were mostly semi-skilled workers in factories, in industrial sites,
and in the service sector.
Thus, a new organization was set up in the industrial areas of Riyadh
named KALMAPI (Kaisahan ng Migranteng Pilipino sa Industrial Area
or Unity of Migrant Filipinos in the Industrial Area). Its membership
rose to more than 200 workers during this period.
The presence of full-time organizers during this period resulted
in the conduct of seminar-workshops in organizing and leadership
training held in Riyadh, Jeddah and the Eastern Province. The seminar-workshops
dealt on the process and methods of organizing migrant workers,
e.g., how to facilitate contacts and develop them to become part
of an organizing group.
Consultations/workshops on secondary-level training, like leadership
formation for Saudi-based leaders, instructors' training for organisers,
and cooperatives development for some workers were held. Issue campaigns
against unjust labor practices were also done, an example of which
was the advocacy action for 32 dismissed teachers of the Philippine
Embassy School in Riyadh who were later reinstated because of advocacy
campaigns staged by migrant groups and supported by migrant institution
in the region.
Organizing work in Saudi at this time was vibrant. Migrant workers'
organizations were active because many of their members knew the
importance of being organized and they participated enthusiastically
in the training workshops and in the advocacy campaigns that were
conducted. It was, therefore, a great loss when some migrant leaders
had to return home due to the expiration of their working contracts.
The active members of the Dressmakers Association in the Eastern
Province were also forced to return home when their employers decided
to close down their factories as a result of the economic crisis
and stiff market competition.
By the end of this period, there was a diminished number of leader/organisers,
and some of the migrant organisations established earlier became
inactive. These were the Association of Dressmakers in the Eastern
Province, the Filipino Expatriates, Inc. (FILEX), and KUMPARE in
Jeddah. As a consequence, the Saudi-wide formation called KASAMA-KA
would later on become inactive. One of the founding member-organizations
of MIGRANTE, the Kapatiran sa Gitnang Silangan (KGS), would remain
active in Riyadh, while KALMAPI continued to exist in the industrial
On top of these, it was pointed out that in spite of the contribution
made during the period of stay of full time organizers in the area,
it failed to develop second-liner leaders who could lead the further
development of migrant organizations. This failure was attributed
to the short-term stay of full time organizers. There was the problem
of securing their long-term visas so they could stay for longer
periods of time. Aside from this, there were also the difficulties
of adjusting and withstanding Middle Eastern culture and the conditions
of working in such a repressive environment.
In Saudi Arabia, the System of Unity for Social Integration (SUSI)
which was originally established in the Eastern Province in 1992
was re-established in Riyadh in February, 1997. The re-establishment
of SUSI in Riyadh was due to former SUSI leaders of the Eastern
Province who had been transferred for employment in Riyadh.
Lakas Manggagawa ng Al-Khobar or Workers Strength in Al-Khobar (LMA)
was then established in the Eastern Province in 1997. Other formations
of migrant workers emerged in other cities in the Eastern Province
like Jubail and Dahmam. Later, they formed themselves into a coordinating
body called Lakas Manggagawa sa Silangang Probinsya or Workers Strength
in the Eastern Province (LMSP).
There was a phenomenon among migrant workers, be they men and women,
where they classified themselves as "stranded" for various reasons
- like being "undocumented" workers because they had no valid work
or residency permits, either because they ran away from abusive
employers or their contracts had expired but they still wanted to
work in foreign countries; abandonment of employers due to economic
bankruptcy or other reasons; loss of livelihood due to occurrence
of natural disasters struck, etc.
Despite the Saudi situation, organizing work was initiated among
stranded workers who called themselves Migrant Workers Stranded
in Riyadh (MWSR). As mentioned earlier, the difficulties of organizing
work in Saudi Arabia were even more exacerbated because of the fear
that these undocumented workers lived through - they were officially
categorized as "criminals" and no institutionalized mechanisms were
available for their protection. Fellow migrants who would help them
faced grave danger and they could be deported for "coddling criminals".
For years, the plight of these stranded workers was taken up in
various advocacy campaigns, and it was only during this period that
they were brought together, to organize and mobilize them to act
on their situation, and to demand protection from their government
-- after all, they paid exorbitant membership and service fees to
OWWA and other government agencies so they could be insured or protected
from such calumny.
In 1996, as a result of the campaign, they were repatriated back
to Manila where they reconvened themselves and affiliated their
formation with MIGRANTE International. The ensuing MIGRANTE-led
campaign resulted in the release of a US$10,000 fund by the Department
of Foreign Affairs of the Philippine government for a male shelter
facility, food and medicines for the stranded workers. It also reulsted
in the repatriation of 2,000 of them from Saudi Arabia.
During this period, problems on how best to organize migrants in
a very conservative country like Saudi Arabia, and how to do organizing
work in a situation where there was a fast turn-over rate among
migrant workers needed to be addressed.
Summing-up of experiences and a drawing of lessons were conducted.
It was pointed out that in Saudi, the training of second-liners
who could take up the tasks of organizing work had to be done through
a learning-while-doing method. This meant that would-be volunteers
were encouraged to attend meetings wherein various things were concretely
done like in the conceptualization of campaigns, discussion of issues,
trouble-shooting to solve organizational problems and other related
matters. Coupled with this on-the-job training, so to speak, there
was the need for organizers to focus on assisting existing organizations,
on doing expansion work through chapter building, and on more organizing
in the industrial-based areas.
The key to this was the conduct of regular assessments and learning
from the summing-up of experiences.
In 1999, a campaign launched by some Filipino migrant groups against
excessive collection of passport fees and temporary travel document
of the Philippine Embassy was held. This happened during the height
of the 1997 financial crisis that forced migrant workers in Korea
to return home.
The campaign was launched after a series consultations made by APMMF
representative who happened to be present in Korea during the announcement
of the Philippine Embassy that they will increase the collection
of fees. Afterwards, a series of dialogues with the Philippine Embassy
officials were held.
The campaign was supported by other migrant groups in different
countries and in the Philippines through MIGRANTE International.
It forced the Philippine Embassy in Korea to lower its fees for
passports and temporary travel documents.
The lessons and experiences after the lowering of fees became more
significant and it encouraged the leaders and members of different
organizations to continue with their unity and united actions. This
led to the formation of KASAMMAKO or Unity of Filipino Migrant Workers
in Korea, an alliance of Filipino migrant organizations which was
formally established in the same year.
The alliance was originally composed of the following migrant groups:
1. Association of Filipino Migrant Workers in Korea (AFILMWOK)
2. Bicol Association
3. Federation of Filipino Workers in Korea (FFWK)
4. New Era Foundation
5. Sama-sama sa Korea (SSK)
Almost half of the 27,000 Filipinos in Korea in year 2000 were undocumented
migrants, meaning they did not have proper working documents.
The presence of a full-time organizer to coordinate different acitivities
and conduct direct organizing among the undocumented migrants was
a very important factor. But this should not be taken as a pre-requisite
in organizing migrants. The campaign in 1999 was held without the
presence of a full-time organizer. What was important was the courage
and unity of migrant workers to oppose and resist anti-migrant policies
both by their own government and the government of the host country.
Due to their mobility problem, regular visits among migrants workplaces
and living quarters were held regularly. This provided regular updates
on the issues of the day and and also served as a venue to do coordination
work. For KASAMMAKO leaders, they conducted their regular visits
after work and during their day-off.
At present, member organizations of KASAMMAKO expanded from the
original five member organization to 10 member organizations. KASAMMAKO
continued to launch campaigns against the trainee system, cancellation
of passports, crackdown of undocumented migrants, excessive fees
and sex trafficking among others. They conducted campaign actions
aside from the day to day welfare and labor related cases that they
handled among their member organizations.